Chronological Bibliography
Materials Related to Dance and Technology

1965 Le Vasseur, Paul. "Computer Dance; The Role of the Computer." Impulse; The Annual of Contemporary Dance. San Francisco, 1965. 25-27. ([Limited] combinatoric-use of the computer in choreography. Required IBM 7070 system.)

1965 Beaman, Jeanne. "Computer Dance; Implications of the Dance." Impulse; The Annual of Contemporary Dance. San Francisco, 1965. 27-28. (That two dancers may take the directions generated in Le Vasseur's study (1965) and produce dances which arrive at different emotional ends through different technical means. Group dances are built from simultaneous individual solutions to computer-generated arrangements that can limited in terms of space, parallel actions, opposition, and mirror images. Ultimately, there is no escaping human control.)

1967 Noll, A. Michael. "Choreography and Computers" Dance Magazine XLI/1 (January 1967). 43-45. (Discussion of program that indicates stage positions of stick figures and the potential for a choreographer.)

1967 Hutchinson, Ann. "A Reply [to A. Michael Noll's "Choreography and Computers" Dance Magazine (January 1967). 45-46, 81-81. (Analysis of movement is the bridge between dance and computer technology. Some choreographers are not clear about their movement ideas, or need the stimulation of real dancers to inspire kinesthetic ideas, and would not easily adapt to computer usage. Inner motivation of movement difficult to determine.)

1969 Baecker, R. Picture-driven animation. Proceedings AFIPS 1969 Spring Jt. Comp. Conference. (Montvale, NJ: AFIPS Press, [1969?]) XXXIV, 273- 88.

1969 Beaman, Jeanne. "Computer Choreography." Anthology of Impluse. Edited by M. Van Tuyl. LXII (1969).

1969 Tharp, Twyla. History of the Up and Down (Dance). Twyla Tharp 1965-83.

1970 Crisp, Clement. "No Need to Fear Computer Ballet." Parade (London Press Service), CLIII

1970 Eshkol, N. and P. Melvin, J. Michl, H. Von Foerster, and A. Wachmann. "Notation of Movements." Biological Computer Laboratory Report, BCL 10.0 (University of Illinois, 1970).

1970 Lansdown, John. "Computer Art for Theatrical Performances." Proceedings, ACM International Computer Symposium (Bonn, 1970).

1970 Parslow, Robert. "Computer Aided Art." Computer Aided Design II/3 (Spring 1970), 22-28.

1970 Withrow, Carol. "A Dynamic Model for Computer-Aided Choreography." Report UTEC-CSC-70-103 (Department of Computer Science, University of Utah.) Salt Lake City: UTEC Press, 1970.

1971 Peterson, Donna. A Geometrical Approach to the Development of Computer Graphics Analysis of Human Structure and Movement (M.F.A. Thesis.) University of Utah, 1971.

1973 Keen, J. Movement Project, Basser Dept. of Computer Studies, University of Sydney, 1973. (Suggested that the computer would be a means of modifying a work after it was begun, but without employing dancers. One problem using a conventional character set was that the character strings would have to be unraveled to build the data structure of Labanotation score.)

1974 Cordiero, Helena K. Computer Dance, TV, TV/Dance. Campinas, Brasil: Universidade Estadual de Campinas--Unicamp. 1974. (See review, 1976 Tracy. Cordeiro describes three computer-assisted dances, M3x3, 0o -45o, and Gestures, in which instructions are generated for the dancer and video cameraperson.)

1974 Fetter, W. "A Human Figure Computer Graphics Development for Multiple Applications." Proceedings, Eurocomp Conference (London, 1974).

1974 Herbison-Evans, D. "Animated Cartoons by Computer Using Ellipsoids." Proceedings 6th Australian Computer Conference, August 1974. 811- 23 [354-56?].

1974 Lansdown, J. and P. Friedman. "Procedures for Artists." CAS Interact Conference (Edinburgh, 1974).

1974 Loewen, Debra G. "Technology for the Dance." Dance Collage; Essays Collected in Honor of Margaret Erlanger. Edited Ariana Schwartz and others. 1974. 103-07. (Mentions combinatorics and studies of Noll and Withrow.)

1974 Tracy, M. A Computer-Aided Movement Notation System (M.A. Thesis.) University of California, Los Angeles, 1974. (A ten-second phrase of movement was filmed by four cameras simultaneously, a frame-by- frame analysis was made, locations of thirty-nine visible points on the body were plotted, data was punched onto cards and fed into a computer, and the output was symbolized as a Labanotated score.)

1974 Wolofsky, Zella. Computer Interpretation of Selected Labanotation Commands (M.Sc. Thesis.) Kinesiology Department, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B. C., Canada. 1974.

1975 Archer, L. B. A Study of Computer-Aided Choreography. Royal College of Art, London. 1975

1975 Little, Sue. "Dance Co-operative." Dance and Dancers (February 1975). 32-34. (For two works, Touching and Metronome, John Lansdown used the computer to arrange time lengths to get into positions at various locations.)

1975 Mendo, G. and L.B. Archer. "Computer-Choreology Project I-- Specifications for the Character Recognition and Syntax Analysis of Benesh Movement Notation." A Study of Computer Choreography. London: Institute of Choreology, 1975.

1976 Brown, Maxine D. A Graphic Editor for Labanotation (M.Sc. Thesis.) Moore School of Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, 1976. (It is based on a one-to-one correspondence between a subset of the ASCII character set and a set of basic Labanotation symbols, with the provision that a Labanotation character may be qualified by additional data concerning its size, shading, orientation, and position. Because of limited ASCII subset, certain Labanotation symbols must be composed by superimposing two or more of these qualified characters. The computers does not recognize the superposition as defining a single symbol such as black dot and empty square to make pelvis.)

1976 Brown, Maxine D. and S.W. Smoliar. "A Graphic Editor for Labanotation." Computer Graphics (Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Conference on Computer Graphics, Interactive Techniques and Image Processing, ACM Computer Graphics) X/2 (Summer 1976). 60-65.

1976 Tracy, Martin J. Review of Cordeiro's Computer Dance, TV, TV/Dance. Dance Research Journal VIII/2 (1976). 40. (Devalues computer- generated random step-sequences. Suggests to standardize computer grammar that gives form and organization to dances.)

1976 Tracy, Martin J. "Dance: Pattern Recognition and Generation." Current Trends in Computer Uses for Language Research. Edited by Sally Sedelow. The Hague, Netherlands: Mouton, 1976.

1976-77 Woodruff, Dianne. "The Fifth CORD Conference [11-14 November 1976, Philadelphia]." Dance Research Journal IX/1 (Fall/Winter 1976-77). 47-50. (Event XV, chaired by Martin J. Tracy, was about computer- aided dance research. Debra Loewen presented "Interactive Woman- -Machine Improvisations"; J.M. Officer, "Computerization of Human Movement--A Tool for Movement Analysis"; Steve Reiss, "LIMP-- Language Involved in Movement Processing"; Steven W. Smoliar and Lynn Weber, "A Graphics Editor for Labanotation". No information about the content of the presentations was listed.)

1977 Barenholtz, J., Z. Wolofsky, I. Ganapathy, T. Calvert, and P. O'Hara. "Computer Interpretation of Dance Notation." Computing in the Humanities (Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Computing in the Humanities, 2-6 August 1977, Waterloo, Ontario.) Edited by Serge Lusignan and John North. Waterloo, Ontario: University of Waterloo Press, 1977. 235-40. (Can enter Labanotation movement symbols with a light pen on a competer graphics terminal, convert symbols to numerical representations of body positions of a stick figure of 21 segments, and display output as animation.)

1977 [Brown, Maxine and S.W. Smoliar.] "University of Pennsylvania's Moore School of Electrical Engineering . . ." Dance News (September 1977). 19. (Can create on screen and save in memory a notated page using a special keyboard. Required a SPERRY UNIVAC 90/70 system.)

1977 Herbison-Evans, D. NUDES 2: A Numeric Utility Displaying Ellipsoid Solids, Version 2. Technical Report 125, Sydney University, Basser Department of Computer Science.

1977 Hirsch, V. The Implementation of Floor Plans in the Graphic Editor for Labanotation (MSE Thesis.) Dept. Computer and Information Science, Univ. Pennsylvania, 1977.

1977 Lansdown, John. "Computer Choreography and Video." Computing in the Humanities (Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Computing in the Humanities, 2-6 August 1977, Waterloo, Ontario.) Edited by Serge Lusignan and John North. Waterloo, Ontario: University of Waterloo Press, 1977. 241-52. (Apparently, he found the computer sorted movement combinations difficult for dancers to remember, so he used only poses, which the dancers tweened.)

1977 Savage, G.J. and J.M. Officer. "CHOREO: An Interactive Computer Model for Dance." Proceedings 5th Man-Computer Communications Conference, Calgary, Academic Press Inc. (London) Limited (May 1977). 233-49.

1977 Smoliar, Steven W. and L. Weber. "Using the Computer for the Semantic Representation of Labanotation." Computing in the Humanities (Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Computing in the Humanities, 2-6 August 1977, Waterloo, Ontario.) Edited by Serge Lusignan and John North. Waterloo, Ontario: University of Waterloo Press, 1977. 253-61.

1978 Badler, N. I., J. O'Rourke, and H. Toltzis. "A Human Body Modelling System for Motion Studies." Movement Project Report No. 13, Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, July 1978.

1978 Badler, N. I., J. O'Rourke, S. Smoliar, and L. Weber. "The Simulation of Human Movement by Computer." Movement Project Report No. 14, Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, July 1978.

1978 Brown, Maxine D. and S. Smoliar. "Preparing Dance Notation Scores with a Computer." Computers and Graphics III/1 (1978). 1-7.

1978 Calvert, Thomas W. and J. Chapman. "Notation of Movement with Computer Assistance." Proceedings of the ACM Annual Conference II (1978). 731-36.

1978 Herbison-Evans, Don. "NUDES 2: A Numeric Utility Displaying Ellipsoid Solids, Version 2." Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH '78 Proceedings 23-25 August 1978, Atlanta, Georgia. Edited by Richard L. Phillips.) XII/3 (August 1978). 354-56.

1978 Lansdown, John. "The Computer in Choreography." IEEE Computer XI/8 (August 1978). 19-30.

1978 Sidrow, Christina Louise. Computerized Choreography (M.A. Thesis.) California State University, Long Beach, 1978.

1978 Smoliar, Steven W. [and Wayne Tracton?] "A Lexical Analysis of Labanotation with an Associated Data Structure." Proceedings of the ACM Annual Conference, 1978. 727-30.

1978 Weber, Lynne and S.W. Smoliar. "Using a Computer to Prepare Labanotation Scores." Essays on Dance Research; CORD Dance Research Annual IX. 243-54. (Presents more readable and detailed account than 1977 Brown study. Demonstrates Labanotation layout on keyboard and reproduces a printed sample and its time rate, which was estimated to be about four times faster than hand-drawn scoring.)

1978 Weber, Lynne, S. W. Smoliar and N.I. Badler. "An Architecture for the Simulation of Human Movement." Proceedings of the ACM National Conference, 1978. II. 737-45 [195-205?]

1979 Badler, N.I., J. O'Rourke, and H. Toltzis. "A Spherical Representation of a Human Body for Visualizing Movement." Proceedings IEEE LXVII/10 (October 1979). 1397-1403.

1979 Badler, Norman I., and S. Smoliar. "Digital Representations of Human Movement." Computing Surveys XI/1 (March 1979). 19-38. (Bibliography)

1979 Calvert, T. W., J. A. Landis, and J. Chapman. [clavert chapman and patla?] "Notation of Dance With Computer Assistance." New Directions in Dance; Collected Writings from the Seventh Dance-in-Canada Conference, held at the University of Waterloo, Canada, June 1979. Edited by Diana Taplin. Toronto and others: Pergamon Press. 169-78. (Describes a system in which Labanotation commands are inputted to create a solo animated dancing stick figure with 36 joints. Input is based on distal and proximal joint numbers, and other parameters. A database records the Cartesian co-ordinates of the joints, which through projective geometry, are displayed at 14 frames per second. Values computer as a tool and not a means of expression. Suggests macro commands (complex programmed sequence) for complicated actions, such as walking. Required originally and IBM 370/155 but altered to PDP-11/34 system.)

1979 Herbison-Evans, D. "Algorithms for Real Time Animation of Drawings of the Human Figure with Hidden Lines Omitted." Technical Report 148, Basser Department of Computer Science, Sidney University, 1979.

1979 Herbison-Evans, D. "A Human Movement Language for Computer Animation." Language Design and Programming Methodology (Proceedings of the Symposium on Language Design and Programming Methodology.) Edited Jeffrey M. Tobias. September 1979. [New York: Spring, 1980?] 117-28.

1979 McNair, B. A Language for Notating Human Movement (M.Sc. Thesis.) Basser Department of Computer Science, Sidney University. 1979.

1979 Savage, G.J., J.M. Officer, G. McDougall. "Computer Graphics Simulation of Body Movement Language." Proceedings of the 6th Man-Computer Communications Conference, 1979. 209-17.

***** This bibliography which is annotated in places gives some idea of what will be listed here. It is a version compiled in 1991 though we have an updated file somewhere. There are about twenty more pages detailing research during the 1980s and '90s which will be on-line in the future. Your patience is appreciated. If you wish to make corrections or additions, please notify the following address: Thanks. *****