1965 Le Vasseur, Paul. "Computer Dance; The Role of the Computer."
Impulse; The Annual of Contemporary Dance. San Francisco, 1965. 25-27. ([Limited]
combinatoric-use of the computer in choreography. Required IBM 7070 system.)
Materials Related to Dance and Technology
1965 Beaman, Jeanne. "Computer Dance; Implications of the Dance."
Impulse; The Annual of Contemporary Dance. San Francisco, 1965. 27-28. (That
two dancers may take the directions generated in Le Vasseur's study (1965)
and produce dances which arrive at different emotional ends through different
technical means. Group dances are built from simultaneous individual solutions
to computer-generated arrangements that can limited in terms of space, parallel
actions, opposition, and mirror images. Ultimately, there is no escaping
1967 Noll, A. Michael. "Choreography and Computers" Dance Magazine
XLI/1 (January 1967). 43-45. (Discussion of program that indicates stage
positions of stick figures and the potential for a choreographer.)
1967 Hutchinson, Ann. "A Reply [to A. Michael Noll's "Choreography
and Computers" Dance Magazine (January 1967). 45-46, 81-81. (Analysis
of movement is the bridge between dance and computer technology. Some choreographers
are not clear about their movement ideas, or need the stimulation of real
dancers to inspire kinesthetic ideas, and would not easily adapt to computer
usage. Inner motivation of movement difficult to determine.)
1969 Baecker, R. Picture-driven animation. Proceedings AFIPS 1969 Spring
Jt. Comp. Conference. (Montvale, NJ: AFIPS Press, [1969?]) XXXIV, 273- 88.
1969 Beaman, Jeanne. "Computer Choreography." Anthology of Impluse.
Edited by M. Van Tuyl. LXII (1969).
1969 Tharp, Twyla. History of the Up and Down (Dance). Twyla Tharp 1965-83.
1970 Crisp, Clement. "No Need to Fear Computer Ballet." Parade
(London Press Service), CLIII
1970 Eshkol, N. and P. Melvin, J. Michl, H. Von Foerster, and A. Wachmann.
"Notation of Movements." Biological Computer Laboratory Report,
BCL 10.0 (University of Illinois, 1970).
1970 Lansdown, John. "Computer Art for Theatrical Performances."
Proceedings, ACM International Computer Symposium (Bonn, 1970).
1970 Parslow, Robert. "Computer Aided Art." Computer Aided Design
II/3 (Spring 1970), 22-28.
1970 Withrow, Carol. "A Dynamic Model for Computer-Aided Choreography."
Report UTEC-CSC-70-103 (Department of Computer Science, University of Utah.)
Salt Lake City: UTEC Press, 1970.
1971 Peterson, Donna. A Geometrical Approach to the Development of Computer
Graphics Analysis of Human Structure and Movement (M.F.A. Thesis.) University
of Utah, 1971.
1973 Keen, J. Movement Project, Basser Dept. of Computer Studies, University
of Sydney, 1973. (Suggested that the computer would be a means of modifying
a work after it was begun, but without employing dancers. One problem using
a conventional character set was that the character strings would have to
be unraveled to build the data structure of Labanotation score.)
1974 Cordiero, Helena K. Computer Dance, TV, TV/Dance. Campinas, Brasil:
Universidade Estadual de Campinas--Unicamp. 1974. (See review, 1976 Tracy.
Cordeiro describes three computer-assisted dances, M3x3, 0o -45o, and Gestures,
in which instructions are generated for the dancer and video cameraperson.)
1974 Fetter, W. "A Human Figure Computer Graphics Development for Multiple
Applications." Proceedings, Eurocomp Conference (London, 1974).
1974 Herbison-Evans, D. "Animated Cartoons by Computer Using Ellipsoids."
Proceedings 6th Australian Computer Conference, August 1974. 811- 23 [354-56?].
1974 Lansdown, J. and P. Friedman. "Procedures for Artists." CAS
Interact Conference (Edinburgh, 1974).
1974 Loewen, Debra G. "Technology for the Dance." Dance Collage;
Essays Collected in Honor of Margaret Erlanger. Edited Ariana Schwartz and
others. 1974. 103-07. (Mentions combinatorics and studies of Noll and Withrow.)
1974 Tracy, M. A Computer-Aided Movement Notation System (M.A. Thesis.)
University of California, Los Angeles, 1974. (A ten-second phrase of movement
was filmed by four cameras simultaneously, a frame-by- frame analysis was
made, locations of thirty-nine visible points on the body were plotted,
data was punched onto cards and fed into a computer, and the output was
symbolized as a Labanotated score.)
1974 Wolofsky, Zella. Computer Interpretation of Selected Labanotation Commands
(M.Sc. Thesis.) Kinesiology Department, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby,
B. C., Canada. 1974.
1975 Archer, L. B. A Study of Computer-Aided Choreography. Royal College
of Art, London. 1975
1975 Little, Sue. "Dance Co-operative." Dance and Dancers (February
1975). 32-34. (For two works, Touching and Metronome, John Lansdown used
the computer to arrange time lengths to get into positions at various locations.)
1975 Mendo, G. and L.B. Archer. "Computer-Choreology Project I-- Specifications
for the Character Recognition and Syntax Analysis of Benesh Movement Notation."
A Study of Computer Choreography. London: Institute of Choreology, 1975.
1976 Brown, Maxine D. A Graphic Editor for Labanotation (M.Sc. Thesis.)
Moore School of Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, 1976.
(It is based on a one-to-one correspondence between a subset of the ASCII
character set and a set of basic Labanotation symbols, with the provision
that a Labanotation character may be qualified by additional data concerning
its size, shading, orientation, and position. Because of limited ASCII subset,
certain Labanotation symbols must be composed by superimposing two or more
of these qualified characters. The computers does not recognize the superposition
as defining a single symbol such as black dot and empty square to make pelvis.)
1976 Brown, Maxine D. and S.W. Smoliar. "A Graphic Editor for
Computer Graphics (Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Conference on Computer
Graphics, Interactive Techniques and Image Processing, ACM Computer Graphics)
X/2 (Summer 1976). 60-65.
1976 Tracy, Martin J. Review of Cordeiro's Computer Dance, TV, TV/Dance.
Dance Research Journal VIII/2 (1976). 40. (Devalues computer- generated
random step-sequences. Suggests to standardize computer grammar that gives
form and organization to dances.)
1976 Tracy, Martin J. "Dance: Pattern Recognition and Generation."
Current Trends in Computer Uses for Language Research. Edited by Sally Sedelow.
The Hague, Netherlands: Mouton, 1976.
1976-77 Woodruff, Dianne. "The Fifth CORD Conference [11-14 November
1976, Philadelphia]." Dance Research Journal IX/1 (Fall/Winter 1976-77).
47-50. (Event XV, chaired by Martin J. Tracy, was about computer- aided
dance research. Debra Loewen presented "Interactive Woman- -Machine
Improvisations"; J.M. Officer, "Computerization of Human Movement--A
Tool for Movement Analysis"; Steve Reiss, "LIMP-- Language Involved
in Movement Processing"; Steven W. Smoliar and Lynn Weber, "A
Graphics Editor for Labanotation". No information about the content
of the presentations was listed.)
1977 Barenholtz, J., Z. Wolofsky, I. Ganapathy, T. Calvert, and P. O'Hara.
"Computer Interpretation of Dance Notation." Computing in the
Humanities (Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Computing
in the Humanities, 2-6 August 1977, Waterloo, Ontario.) Edited by Serge
Lusignan and John North. Waterloo, Ontario: University of Waterloo Press,
1977. 235-40. (Can enter Labanotation movement symbols with a light pen
on a competer graphics terminal, convert symbols to numerical representations
of body positions of a stick figure of 21 segments, and display output as
1977 [Brown, Maxine and S.W. Smoliar.] "University of Pennsylvania's
Moore School of Electrical Engineering . . ." Dance News (September
1977). 19. (Can create on screen and save in memory a notated page using
a special keyboard. Required a SPERRY UNIVAC 90/70 system.)
1977 Herbison-Evans, D. NUDES 2: A Numeric Utility Displaying Ellipsoid
Solids, Version 2. Technical Report 125, Sydney University, Basser Department
of Computer Science.
1977 Hirsch, V. The Implementation of Floor Plans in the Graphic Editor
for Labanotation (MSE Thesis.) Dept. Computer and Information Science, Univ.
1977 Lansdown, John. "Computer Choreography and Video." Computing
in the Humanities (Proceedings of the Third International Conference on
Computing in the Humanities, 2-6 August 1977, Waterloo, Ontario.) Edited
by Serge Lusignan and John North. Waterloo, Ontario: University of Waterloo
Press, 1977. 241-52. (Apparently, he found the computer sorted movement
combinations difficult for dancers to remember, so he used only poses, which
the dancers tweened.)
1977 Savage, G.J. and J.M. Officer. "CHOREO: An Interactive Computer
Model for Dance." Proceedings 5th Man-Computer Communications Conference,
Calgary, Academic Press Inc. (London) Limited (May 1977). 233-49.
1977 Smoliar, Steven W. and L. Weber. "Using the Computer for the Semantic
Representation of Labanotation." Computing in the Humanities (Proceedings
of the Third International Conference on Computing in the Humanities, 2-6
August 1977, Waterloo, Ontario.) Edited by Serge Lusignan and John North.
Waterloo, Ontario: University of Waterloo Press, 1977. 253-61.
1978 Badler, N. I., J. O'Rourke, and H. Toltzis. "A Human Body Modelling
System for Motion Studies." Movement Project Report No. 13, Department
of Computer and Information Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia,
1978 Badler, N. I., J. O'Rourke, S. Smoliar, and L. Weber. "The Simulation
of Human Movement by Computer." Movement Project Report No. 14, Department
of Computer and Information Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia,
1978 Brown, Maxine D. and S. Smoliar. "Preparing Dance Notation Scores
with a Computer." Computers and Graphics III/1 (1978). 1-7.
1978 Calvert, Thomas W. and J. Chapman. "Notation of Movement with
Computer Assistance." Proceedings of the ACM Annual Conference II (1978).
1978 Herbison-Evans, Don. "NUDES 2: A Numeric Utility Displaying Ellipsoid
Solids, Version 2." Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH '78 Proceedings 23-25
August 1978, Atlanta, Georgia. Edited by Richard L. Phillips.) XII/3 (August
1978 Lansdown, John. "The Computer in Choreography." IEEE Computer
XI/8 (August 1978). 19-30.
1978 Sidrow, Christina Louise. Computerized Choreography (M.A. Thesis.)
California State University, Long Beach, 1978.
1978 Smoliar, Steven W. [and Wayne Tracton?] "A Lexical Analysis of
Labanotation with an Associated Data Structure." Proceedings of the
ACM Annual Conference, 1978. 727-30.
1978 Weber, Lynne and S.W. Smoliar. "Using a Computer to Prepare Labanotation
Scores." Essays on Dance Research; CORD Dance Research Annual IX. 243-54.
(Presents more readable and detailed account than 1977 Brown study. Demonstrates
Labanotation layout on keyboard and reproduces a printed sample and its
time rate, which was estimated to be about four times faster than hand-drawn
1978 Weber, Lynne, S. W. Smoliar and N.I. Badler. "An Architecture
for the Simulation of Human Movement." Proceedings of the ACM National
Conference, 1978. II. 737-45 [195-205?]
1979 Badler, N.I., J. O'Rourke, and H. Toltzis. "A Spherical Representation
of a Human Body for Visualizing Movement." Proceedings IEEE LXVII/10
(October 1979). 1397-1403.
1979 Badler, Norman I., and S. Smoliar. "Digital Representations of
Human Movement." Computing Surveys XI/1 (March 1979). 19-38. (Bibliography)
1979 Calvert, T. W., J. A. Landis, and J. Chapman. [clavert chapman and
patla?] "Notation of Dance With Computer Assistance." New Directions
in Dance; Collected Writings from the Seventh Dance-in-Canada Conference,
held at the University of Waterloo, Canada, June 1979. Edited by Diana Taplin.
Toronto and others: Pergamon Press. 169-78. (Describes a system in which
Labanotation commands are inputted to create a solo animated dancing stick
figure with 36 joints. Input is based on distal and proximal joint numbers,
and other parameters. A database records the Cartesian co-ordinates of the
joints, which through projective geometry, are displayed at 14 frames per
second. Values computer as a tool and not a means of expression. Suggests
macro commands (complex programmed sequence) for complicated actions, such
as walking. Required originally and IBM 370/155 but altered to PDP-11/34
1979 Herbison-Evans, D. "Algorithms for Real Time Animation of Drawings
of the Human Figure with Hidden Lines Omitted." Technical Report 148,
Basser Department of Computer Science, Sidney University, 1979.
1979 Herbison-Evans, D. "A Human Movement Language for Computer Animation."
Language Design and Programming Methodology (Proceedings of the Symposium
on Language Design and Programming Methodology.) Edited Jeffrey M. Tobias.
September 1979. [New York: Spring, 1980?] 117-28.
1979 McNair, B. A Language for Notating Human Movement (M.Sc. Thesis.) Basser
Department of Computer Science, Sidney University. 1979.
1979 Savage, G.J., J.M. Officer, G. McDougall. "Computer Graphics Simulation
of Body Movement Language." Proceedings of the 6th Man-Computer Communications
Conference, 1979. 209-17.
***** This bibliography which is annotated in places gives some idea of
what will be listed here. It is a version compiled in 1991 though we have
an updated file somewhere. There are about twenty more pages detailing research
during the 1980s and '90s which will be on-line in the future. Your patience
is appreciated. If you wish to make corrections or additions, please notify
the following address: firstname.lastname@example.org Thanks. *****